Coral reefs are especially fragile marine ecosystems and are suffering worldwide from reef-based tourism developments. In rural destinations activities, such as hikingtrekkingkayakingbird watchingwildlife safarissurfingsnorkellingand scuba-diving mostly affect the local ecology.
Most destination community members are also the ones most impacted by tourism, therefore there is an importance in their involvement in tourism planning. The mere presence of humans can increase the heart rate and stress hormones of even the largest animal.
An average golf course in a tropical country such as Thailand needs kg of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides per year and uses as much water as 60, rural villagers. It then leads to the belief that tours are no longer authentic experiences.
This is almost double what the inhabitants of an average Spanish city use. Air pollution from tourist transportation has impacts on the global level, especially from carbon dioxide CO2 emissions related to transportation energy use.
Rivers can be altered, excessively extracted, and polluted by the demands of tourists. For example, often hotels and resorts are built illegally very close to the beach or inside the core areas of forests.