Indoor positioning using infrastructure
Bluetooth was not intended to offer a pinned location like GPS, however is known as a geo-fence or micro-fence solution which makes it an indoor proximity solution, not an indoor positioning solution.
Indoor positioning system india
However, in order to make positioning signals ubiquitous, integration between GPS and indoor positioning can be made. A lot of systems use enhanced Wi-Fi infrastructure to provide location information. In such a system, markers are placed at specific locations throughout a venue, each marker encoding that location's coordinates: latitude, longitude and height off the floor. AoA is usually determined by measuring the time difference of arrival TDOA between multiple antennas in a sensor array. The MEMS inertial sensors suffer from internal noises which result in cubically growing position error with time. Identification and segregation[ edit ] In most applications the population of targets is larger than just one. On the other hand, smartphones are already widespread and their low cost sensors are promising as rich data sources that can be used for indoor navigation. The inside of buildings is not free space , so accuracy is significantly impacted by reflection and absorption from walls. Due to the low range, a tagged entity will be identified by only a few close, networked receivers. Multiple measurements can be combined with trilateration and multilateration to find a location.
Grid concepts[ edit ] Instead of long range measurement, a dense network of low-range receivers may be arranged, e. Once the database is built, a mobile device moving through the venue can take snapshots that can be interpolated into the venue's database, yielding location coordinates.
AoA is usually used with triangulation and a known base line to find the location relative to two anchor transmitters. To reduce the error growth in such devices a Kalman Filtering based approach is often used. Advanced systems combine visual coverage with a camera grid with the wireless coverage for the rough location.
Time of arrival[ edit ] Time of arrival ToA, also time of flight is the amount of time a signal takes to propagate from transmitter to receiver.
Angle of arrival[ edit ] Angle of arrival AoA is the angle from which a signal arrives at a receiver. A bundle of physical and mathematical methods are applied to compensate for these problems. Our testing results showed that the positioning accuracy improved as the number of participants in the cooperative positioning operation increased.
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