In Dick Hebdige's Cut 'n' Mix, he writes: "By preserving African drumming traditions, by remembering African rhythms, the slaves could keep alive the memory of the freedom they had lost" p.
With the global impact and popularity it had in the early 90s to the s the right time came for hip hop to reinvent itself. As a musical genre it is characterized by its hard hitting beats and rhythms and expressive spoken word lyrics that address topics ranging from economic disparity and inequality, to gun violence and gang affiliated activity Cutting programs that provide social services to help alleviate the unequal opportunity to jobs, resources, and social mobility will only serve to aggravate problems.
It eventually broke out of the African-American and Puerto Rican community somewhere between the late 's to early 's and started to spread its influence around the globe from that point on. The nihilistic approach to violence and criminal activity for which rap is often criticized is defended by some artists as the understandable result of the disparities that face African-American communities, from which rap originated and remains rooted.
But many newer acts are focused almost entirely on pathologies within the black community. February 8, Within many popular culture mediums such as music, stereotypical representations of racially marked female bodies are often formed. Since technology is innovating, these powerhouse radio authorities are starting to whither away and only cater to the ones who speak the loudest, AKA the songs that top the billboard charts The purpose of this paper is to examine women within the hip hop culture.
Penney writes that in order for the heteronormative hyper-masculine identity to be reinforced, the inferior, homosexual Other must be constantly disparaged and inferred through lyrics as a benchmark for legitimate membershi